Trading 101 | The Fundamentals

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The vast majority of traders and investors basically don’t have much of a plan.

And most believe that all they have to do is listen to analyst recommendations and breaking news and they'll be set for life.



For Most Trading Is Just Gambling

Everyone I know that has tried to "play" the markets using news from TV or internet talking heads has eventually lost their money and quit.

If over 95% of the players in this game lose, and 95% use the news to trade...are we seeing a correlation here?

Once upon a time, I was also caught up in scanning the news for trading ideas.

Every now and then, I would catch a nice win or two, but it was like playing a slot machine - I would win just enough times to keep playing.

I thought that if I just worked hard enough, reading newspapers, earning reports, etc. I could crack the stock market code.

Eventually, I realized my account was not growing, despite all the time and energy put into "market research".

I've always been an analytical type of person, so I began my search for a repeatable trading method.

After reading several interviews of successful traders, I decided to go the computerized route.

Many of the best traders in the world were using computerized systems to generate their buy and sell signals, and that fit in well with my idea of how trading should be.

Trading System Philosophy

The philosophy of trading system design is to use the past to figure out the probability of something happening in the future.

That doesn't mean we can predict the future - we can react to it, however.

I think of trading as I do playing card games like poker.

The big difference is that the rules for poker are very well-established and repeatable.

With the stock market, the rules aren't published, so I have to use the past to come up with the rules of how I think the game should be played.

I put my ideas into a computer which in turn tells me if I would have done well (by making money) in the past with those sets of rules.

There's Nothing New Under the Sun

The future is unknowable, but knowing what's happened in the past can give a glimpse into the probabilities of future outcomes.

After all, human emotion is the same now as it was 1000 years ago (and I contend that it's these emotions that create edges for us to exploit in the markets).

The primary way to keep score in the stock market game is by how much money you make - not how often you're right or wrong.

You see, if you won 30% of the time, but your winners were 3 times the size of your losers, you would be making money.

Most traders focus too much on their own ego instead of playing the game to make money.

That's why even Einstein-type brainiacs with bulging IQs fail at trading.

When you get the emotion out of the picture and focus on playing the game on its terms, you can find a constant source of wealth.

Crunching the Numbers

It's really not just enough to make money from the market.

I want to not only make a bunch of money, but I want to do so while keeping my draw-downs as small as possible.

If I make 80% in one year, but I had to stomach a 60% draw-down during that time...well, that's not a good trading system.

In fact, a trading system like that could very well make you lose all your money at some point in the future.

Tested Analysis

So how do we go about finding systems with potential?

By testing, testing, and retesting.

I like to say that I don't use technical analysis to find my trades; I use tested analysis.

I'll pour through charts for hours on end until I see what appears to be an edge.

I'll then program my ideas into a computer (or computers depending on how much number crunching is required).

Next, I'll refine the trading criteria by testing different combinations of the indicators I've fed to the computer.

All told, this process takes a VERY long time, as even my new computers have a hard time crunching data for thousands of stocks for 15+ years.

If it's hard to do, then I know I'm on the right track.

If it was easy, then everyone would be doing it and I wouldn't have an edge.

Enter gain/pain ratios and a plethora of other statistics.

One of the most common statistics to measure performance is the MAR ratio.

Basically, you take your compound annual growth rate (CAGR) and divide it by your worst drawdown during that time.

So if my trading system has a CAGR of 50%, and my worst drawdown was 25%, then the MAR ratio is 2.0.

The Bigger The Better

In general, I've found that the shorter the time frame and the more trades, the bigger the MAR.

A very short-term trading system like the swing trading system has a MAR of around 3...even during the worst bear market since 1929. 

If you look at its equity curve with drawdowns, you will see that it's been a steady money maker.

When dealing with longer trading periods, the gain/pain ratios tend to get smaller.

The benefit is that you trade less, and returns can be very large, but these systems take more of a hit from time to time.

Trend-following systems usually have lower MAR ratios in the stock market.

Another important stat to me is the length of time between new equity peaks.

I don't want to trade systems that go on more than 12 months before making a new equity high.

It's very hard to stay focused after that long of a drawdown.

The MAR ratio is very easy to understand, but I find it lacking.

Just knowing your growth rate and worst drawdown is not enough.

I want to dive in and use a number that penalizes me for not only big drawdowns but the length of time between new equity peaks.

Peter Martin came up with the Ulcer index which does just that.

It gives numbers between 0 (a perfectly straight line with no drawdowns) and 100 (a system always in drawdown...which would surely give me an ulcer).

By going through your equity curve, it penalizes you by the drawdown squared each time you're below the equity peak.

You can then take your annual growth rate and divide it by the Ulcer index.

I think this is by far the best way to compare systems.

Thank you, Peter Martin.

Money Management

In order to make money while keeping risk low, you have to use proper money and risk management.

Most see this as an afterthought to trading.

It's not! In fact, it should be thought of as the most important aspect of trading.

If you risk too much and lose all your money, you're out of the game.

For every trade you make, you should know exactly how many shares you're going to buy, and how much money is at risk at any one point.

For example, if you lose money on any one trade, perhaps it should not be more than 1% of your total portfolio.

You could calculate how many shares to buy based on your entry price and stop price:

# Shares = (% Portfolio risk) * (Portfolio size) / (Buy price - Stop price)

So for a $50,000 portfolio risking 1% (or $500):

# Shares = (0.01) * ($50,000) / (25.45 - 23.04)

# Shares = 207

When trading stocks there is more to worry about than how much you're going to risk on any one trade.

You see, stocks are highly correlated to each other. 

Not only are you risking money on each trade, but you're risking that all those stocks will fail at the same time.

Therefore, you must limit the number of stocks a system is trading at any one time.

My testing has shown a very easy way to blend fixed fractional betting with risk management.

Simply divide the money to risk evenly between 10 or more positions.

For example:

# Shares = ( Portfolio size / 10 ) / Entry price

# Shares = ( $50,000 / 10) / (25.45)

# Shares = 196

Now, we have limited the number of positions (10) that can go against us, and we've reduced the maximum risk in case a stock went belly up (if one of our stocks went to zero, we would be out 10% max).

Statistical Significance

One of the biggest errors I see people make when testing systems is statistical significance.

Sometimes, a particular pattern will come up only 10-15 times in history.

The results look great, but when applied to the real world, they fail.

You see, I could randomly choose a particular stock and random date to buy on the open, then sell on the close.

There are thousands of stocks and about 250 trading days in a year.

I bet I could find a few examples that win 100% of the time just due to random chance.

When I look for an edge in trading, I want to see many examples...not just a handful.

When it comes to choosing from thousands of stocks, I want to see hundreds if not thousands of samples.

That way I can determine that I've not simply come up with a random sampling of trades that just happen to work.

The stock trading systems described on this website all have hundreds of samples in backtesting.

Over Curve-Fitting To Past Data

I've seen this mistake over and over again.

A trader gets a basic backtesting package and proceeds to test which moving averages work for a particular stock.


This is a quick way to lose money.

If you're only using one stock to calculate the optimized values, you're going to run into the problem outlined above (not enough samples for statistical significance).

One set of rules for thousands of stocks.

If instead, you were to scan thousands of stocks for a few combinations that work for all of them...well that's a much more significant statistic.

When I'm testing what works for stocks, I test them ALL.

I want to use the same rules for thousands of stocks...only then do I believe I have discovered an edge.

Accounting for Commissions and Slippage

There are way too many traders that do not realize how much money they are losing on commissions.

But the great news is that commissions are falling dramatically.

However, you still have to pay interest to your broker for using margin when buying or selling short, and you must account for slippage.

Slippage is the amount of money you lose when a stock does not trade exactly at your entry price.

Say I place an order to buy at the open.

The open was 20.00, but my fill price was 20.07.

My slippage is 7 cents times the number of shares bought (7 cents * 1000 shares = $70).

I always include slippage when testing systems.

Eventually, it's very possible to move the market with your orders.

There are two ways I combat this: by only trading liquid stocks that trade several million dollars worth of shares on average, and by using stop limit orders.

Stop limit orders allow you to place a ceiling on how much you're willing to pay for a stock.

System Trading Terms and Formulas

CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate.

It's no good to simply take your percentage gains and divide by time.

If you made 50,000% over a 50-year period, that's not the same as saying you made 1,000% a year.

You would apply a formula based on compound interest instead:

x Sqrt(% Gain) - 1 (where x is the number of years)

(50) Sqrt(50,000%) - 1 = 13.23% 

(Note that I'm using the special square root function found on most scientific calculators)

MAR: A simple measure for gain to pain.

Take the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) and divide it by the worst drawdown.

If I have a 50% CAGR, and my worst drawdown was 25%, my MAR ratio is 2.0.

Ulcer Index - Created by Peter Martin, this gain/pain stat ranges from 0-100.

Zero would be a perfectly straight line with no drawdowns, while 100 would be straight down (thus giving you an ulcer). 

Both the depth and duration of a drawdown are measured.

I like this statistics model because, unlike the MAR ratio, it does not over-penalize you for what by definition is a one-time event (your worst drawdown). 

Martin Ratio - By taking your CAGR and dividing it by the Ulcer Index, this number will give you a much better number to compare trading systems.

Sharpe ratios and MAR ratios are inferior comparison models in my opinion.

System Diversification

While splitting money between different systems is great, just how related are all your systems to each other?

For example, what if I had a few systems that bought breakouts in different time frames?

So system 1 might buy a 10-day breakout, and system 2 might buy a 20-day breakout.

Is this really a good strategy?

My experience says no.

I like to use different styles for each system.

That makes the correlation much lower.

By throwing different styles into the mix, you can often have a system zigging while the other zags.

This makes for a much smoother equity curve.

Side note - I believe this is while Richard Dennis had a tough time getting investors to stay with him later in his career.

He made huge amounts of money, but the drawdowns were large, and he did not diversify between system styles I believe (can't say for certain, but Curtis Faith, one of the original Turtle Traders was only taught two breakout systems when he was trained by Richard and Bill).

Knowing When to Fold 'Em

One important question most system designers fail to ask themselves is just when to stop using a system.

After creating systems and using them in the real world, I know from experience that there are times when a system just isn't working.

For example, I might create a system with more than a dozen years of back-testing and thousands of trades.

Without warning, the system might start trading sideways or enter into a normal drawdown and then never recover.

A year later, the system acts like normal and goes straight up for several years.

These things are cyclical I've found.

I remember several years back when traders were talking about the death of trend following.

There was a drawdown for a couple of years, but then those systems started putting in stellar gains. 

As you can see, there's quite a bit of research and development that goes into not only making trading systems but actually trading them.

This is how professional hedge funds manage trading systems.

The more you treat trading as a business, the more successful you will become.

Happy Trading!

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About the Author

Hello! I'm Kurt, the "Relaxed Trader" writing the stuff on this website. Shoot me an email at or leave a comment below. Cheers!

  • Good Afternoon

    I came across your website by sheer chance and have enjoyed reading the material.

    I know that your emphasis appears to be principally stocks but I was wondering if these approaches would work with options as well.

    Thanks for some very clear, non-hyped writing and explanations.

    Best regards


    • Hi Michael,
      Glad you are enjoying my blog!
      As for options, if you are comfortable with them you certainly can use them with a lot of the approaches I layout throughout the blog.
      Be mindful of that leverage though!
      Let me know if I can help with anything else.

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